1943: German Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus surrendered to the Russians at Stalingrad in World War Two.
1996: Suicide truck bombers attacked Sri Lanka's central bank in the heart of the capital, Colombo. At least 80 people were killed.
2000: An Alaska Airlines MD-83 carrying 88 people plunged 17,000 feet (5,180 metres) into the Pacific off southern California. All aboard were killed.