President Vladimir Putin yesterday vowed Russia will "firmly" defend national interests and denounced the return of "Russophobia", as the country marked the 76th anniversary of victory in World War II.
His speech to thousands of soldiers and veterans on Red Square came as recent tensions between Moscow and the West.
"The Soviet people kept their sacred oath, defended the homeland and freed the countries of Europe from the black plague," Putin told the crowd.
"Russia consistently defends international law. At the same time, we will firmly defend our national interests to ensure the safety of our people," he said.
The Russian leader also condemned what he called a creeping return of ideologies of the time, when "slogans of racial and national superiority, of anti-semitism and Russophobia, became ever more cynical".
His speech came at the start of an annual parade that sees military hardware roll through the streets of Moscow. More than 12,000 military personnel took part in the parade, as well as some 190 pieces of military equipment and 76 fighter jets and helicopters.
Victory Day parades, which only became an annual event after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and have taken on increasing importance in projecting Russia's renewed military might during Putin's two decades in power, also took place yesterday in dozens of cities across the nation.